Published online Jun 10, 2017. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v8.i3.261
Peer-review started: January 16, 2017
First decision: March 28, 2017
Revised: April 21, 2017
Accepted: May 18, 2017
Article in press: May 20, 2017
Published online: June 10, 2017
To study the levels of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
This was a non randomized case control study conducted at Department of Biochemistry, in collaboration with Regional Cancer Center over a period of one year. The study population included 50 adult newly diagnosed HNSCC patients reporting in outpatient department at Regional Cancer Center and compared with 50 healthy controls. NGAL was estimated by ELISA technique. Student t test and χ2 test were applied for comparison of means of study groups. Correlations between groups were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient (r) formula.
Patients with HNSCC exhibited significantly increased levels of NGAL (P < 0.05) as compared to healthy controls (978.88 ± 261.39 ng/mL vs 34.83 ± 7.59 ng/mL). Out of 50, 26 patients (52%) were in stage IV, 21 (42%) in stage III, 1 (2%) patient in stage II and 2 (4%) patients were in stage I. Metastasis was absent in 98% patients and mean NGAL levels were highest in these patients but P value was not significant. Mean NGAL levels were highest in stage IV [1041.54 ± 222.15 ng/mL (stage IV) vs 1040 ± 0.00 ng/mL (stage I); 900 ± 0.00 ng/mL (stage II) and 1031.90 ± 202.55 ng/mL (stage III)] and χ2 test was highly significant (P < 0.001). Thirty-six patients (72%) were having moderately differentiated HNSCC and mean NGAL levels were maximum in patients with well differentiated HNSCC (1164 ± 315.64 ng/mL vs 1013.33 ± 161.19 ng/mL in moderately differentiated and 890 ± 11.55 ng/mL in poorly differentiated) and the results were also highly significant (P < 0.001, χ2 test).
The present work demonstrates a potential role of NGAL as cancer biomarker and its use in monitoring the HNSCC progression.
Core tip: Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin might play a significant role as a biomarker in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.