Review
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Oncol. Apr 24, 2023; 14(4): 138-159
Published online Apr 24, 2023. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v14.i4.138
Immunotherapy in glioblastoma treatment: Current state and future prospects
Samuel Luca Rocha Pinheiro, Fabian Fellipe Bueno Lemos, Hanna Santos Marques, Marcel Silva Luz, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira Silva, Clara Faria Souza Mendes dos Santos, Karolaine da Costa Evangelista, Mariana Santos Calmon, Matheus Sande Loureiro, Fabrício Freire de Melo
Samuel Luca Rocha Pinheiro, Fabian Fellipe Bueno Lemos, Marcel Silva Luz, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira Silva, Clara Faria Souza Mendes dos Santos, Karolaine da Costa Evangelista, Mariana Santos Calmon, Matheus Sande Loureiro, Fabrício Freire de Melo, Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Vitória da Conquista 45029-094, Bahia, Brazil
Hanna Santos Marques, Campus Vitória da Conquista, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Vitória da Conquista 45029-094, Bahia, Brazil
Author contributions: All authors equally contributed to this paper with conception and design of the study, literature review and analysis, drafting and critical revision and editing, and final approval of the final version; all authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions that are related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Supported by the Scientific Initiation Scholarship Programme (PIBIC) of National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, CNPq, Brazil; the Scientific Initiation Scholarship Programme (PIBIC) of Bahia State Research Support Foundation, FAPESB, Brazil.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Fabrício Freire de Melo, PhD, Professor, Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Hormindo Barros, 58, Quadra 17, Lote 58, Vitória da Conquista 45029-094, Bahia, Brazil. freiremeloufba@gmail.com
Received: December 28, 2022
Peer-review started: December 28, 2022
First decision: January 17, 2023
Revised: February 6, 2023
Accepted: April 12, 2023
Article in press: April 12, 2023
Published online: April 24, 2023
Abstract

Glioblastoma remains as the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor, standing with a poor prognosis and treatment prospective. Despite the aggressive standard care, such as surgical resection and chemoradiation, median survival rates are low. In this regard, immunotherapeutic strategies aim to become more attractive for glioblastoma, considering its recent advances and approaches. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status and progress in immunotherapy for glioblastoma, going through the fundamental knowledge on immune targeting to promising strategies, such as Chimeric antigen receptor T-Cell therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, cytokine-based treatment, oncolytic virus and vaccine-based techniques. At last, it is discussed innovative methods to overcome diverse challenges, and future perspectives in this area.

Keywords: Glioblastoma, Immunotherapy, Tumor microenvironment, Chimeric antigen receptor T cell, Oncolytic viruses, Immune-checkpoint inhibitors, Brain cancer

Core Tip: This study aims to review the ongoing status and improvement made in immunotherapy for glioblastoma, a malignant brain tumor. Thus, this review goes through the general concepts of the tumor microenvironment, standard treatment and its limitations and immune targeting promising methods, such as Chimeric antigen receptor T-Cell therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, cytokine-based treatment, oncolytic virus and vaccine-based techniques. Finally, it is explained some methods to surpass the various challenges, and future prospects in this field.