Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. Nov 15, 2016; 7(4): 314-319
Published online Nov 15, 2016. doi: 10.4291/wjgp.v7.i4.314
Table 1 Main characteristics of the studies included in this meta-analysis
Ref.CountryStudy designYearTotal numberStudy sampleExposure definitionExposure measurementOutcome definitionOutcome ascertainmentAdjusted ORConfounder adjustmentQuality assessment (Newcastle-Ottawa scale)
Amin et al[16]AustraliaCohort study200675834 in HCV patientsPeople notified with HCV infection to the New South Wales Health Department’s Notifiable Diseases Database between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002 (HCV group) and NSW population (control group)HCV infectionDetection of anti-HCV antibody or HCV RNARenal cancer or kidney cancerThe NSW Central Cancer Registry with ICD-10 code C64 for kidney cancer and C65 for renal cancerKidney cancer 0.9 (0.6–1.4)Age, sex and calendar yearSelection: 4 Comparability: 1 Outcome: 3

Malagu arnera et al[21]ItalyCase control study2006315 (15 case and 300 control)Elderly kidney cancer patients attending geriatric department (case) and elderly volunteers (control)Positive Anti-HCVDetection of Anti-HCV antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Assay positive samples were confirmed by immunoblottingKidney cancerN/A10.29 (3.49-30.36)NoneSelection: 3 Comparability: 0 Outcome: 2

Omland et al[22]DenmarkCohort study20104204 in HCV patientsAcute or chronic HCV infected patients listed in the Danish National Hospital Registry between 1994 and 2003 without previous diagnosis of cancer (HCV) and general population (control)Acute or chronic HCV infectionICD-10 code (B17.1 and B18.2) from the Danish National Hospital RegistryKidney cancerThe Danish Cancer Registry with ICD-7 code 1803.60 (0.98–9.22)Age, sex and year of diagnosisSelection: 4 Comparability: 1 Outcome: 2

Gordon et al[19]United StatesCohort study201067063HCV-tested patients (both positive and negative) between 1997 and 2006 from administrative data from Henry Ford hospitalHCV infectionPositive anti-HCV test using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirmed by a documented positive molecular assay for HCV RNARenal cell carcinomaHealth system cancer registry, confirmed by medical record and pathology report review1.77 (1.05-2.98)Age, race, gender, chronic kidney diseaseSelection: 4 Comparability: 1 Outcome: 3

Budakoğlu et al[17]TurkeyCase-control study20116170 (903 case and 5267 control)Patients who had histologically proven renal cell carcinoma diagnosis between 2005 to 2010 from six tertiary cancer centers (case) and healthy people who were living in the same geographic regions (control)Positive anti-HCVPositive anti-HCV test using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assayRenal cell carcinomaHistopathology report1.08 (0.62-1.88)NoneSelection: 3 Comparability: 0 Outcome: 3

Hofmann et al[20]SwedenCohort study201143000 in HCV patientsAll Swedish residents diagnosed with HCV infection between 1990 and 2006 (HCV group) and general population (control)Chronic HCV infectionThe national surveillance database at the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease ControlKidney cancerThe national Cancer register with ICD-7 code 180.0 and 180.9 and histologic confirmation1.2 (0.8–1.7)Age, sex and calendar yearSelection: 4 Comparability: 1 Outcome: 3

Gonzalez et al[18]United StatesCase-control study2015240 (140 case and 100 control)Newly diagnosed renal cell carcinoma (case) and newly diagnosed colon cancer patients (control)Chronic HCV infectionDetection of anti-HCV antibody or HCV RNARenal cell carcinomaHistopathology reportPositive HCV RNA 24.20 (2.4 - > 999.9)Sex, age, race, BMI, smoking, alcohol abuse, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, cirrhosisSelection: 3 Comparability: 2 Outcome: 3