Diagnostic Advances
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. May 15, 2017; 8(2): 11-26
Published online May 15, 2017. doi: 10.4291/wjgp.v8.i2.11
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Diagnostic biomarkers
Fatemeh Hadizadeh, Elham Faghihimani, Peyman Adibi
Fatemeh Hadizadeh, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Elham Faghihimani, Peyman Adibi, Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746 73461, Iran
Author contributions: Adibi P had the original idea; Hadizadeh F and Faghihimani E performed the literature review and drafted the manuscript; Adibi P performed critical revision of the manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Elham Faghihimani, MD, Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezar Jarib Blvd., Isfahan 81746 73461, Iran. efimani@yahoo.com
Telephone: +98-31-38023060 Fax: +98-31-36687898
Received: June 27, 2016
Peer-review started: June 29, 2016
First decision: August 5, 2016
Revised: January 10, 2017
Accepted: February 8, 2017
Article in press: February 13, 2017
Published online: May 15, 2017

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common medical condition worldwide and its prevalence has increased notably in the past few years due to the increases in prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, diagnosis of this disease is still a matter of debate because of disease variations and pathophysiologic alterations. Specific single markers have gained considerable attention recently, among them markers related to hepatic pathophysiology, inflammation, adipocytokines and so forth. But, it seems that no single marker is sufficient for diagnosis and staging of the disease, and applying a panel including different types of tests may be more useful.

Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, Liver fibrosis, Cirrhosis

Core tip: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a pandemic disease in both developed and developing countries. There is emerging scientific evidence in this field that needs to be classified and summarized to make conceptual maps for researchers as well as practitioners. This article aimed to cover diagnostic markers in this disease, considering limitations and applications.