Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Radiol. Jul 28, 2021; 13(7): 227-232
Published online Jul 28, 2021. doi: 10.4329/wjr.v13.i7.227
Table 1 Summary of proposed mechanisms and abdominal imaging techniques recommended for gastrointestinal involvement in coronavirus disease-2019[13,34,35]

Proposed mechanism
Abdominal imaging
Hepato-biliaryDirect viral cytopathic injury; Congestive hepatopathy; Drug-induced liver injury; Systemic inflammatory response; Exacerbation of preexistent chronic liver diseaseUltrasound to check gallbladder and biliary tree; CT/MRI to asses for perfusion injury and complications
PancreasDirect viral cytopathic injury; Systemic inflammation; DehydrationCT scan to assess severity and complications of pancreatitis, and evaluate for alternative diagnosis; Ultrasound to check for biliary etiology or alternative diagnosis, also for diagnosis and follow-up of complications in pancreatitis
Gastrointestinal tractDirect viral cytopathic injury; Systemic inflammation; Thrombosis; Adverse effects of COVID-19-related drugsCT scan to assess for clinically similar alternative diagnosis, to detect extension and severity of bowel inflammation and to check the vascular patency