Published online Jun 28, 2020. doi: 10.4329/wjr.v12.i6.101
Peer-review started: February 28, 2020
First decision: April 12, 2020
Revised: May 10, 2020
Accepted: May 28, 2020
Article in press: May 28, 2020
Published online: June 28, 2020
Neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) is a rapidly evolving technique used in neuromuscular medicine to provide complimentary information to standard electrodiagnostic studies. NMUS provides a dynamic, real time assessment of anatomy which can alter both diagnostic and management pathways in peripheral nerve disorders. This review describes the current and future techniques used in NMUS and details the applications and developments in the diagnosis and monitoring of compressive, hereditary, immune-mediated and axonal peripheral nerve disorders, and motor neuron diseases. Technological advances have allowed the increased utilisation of ultrasound for management of peripheral nerve disorders; however, several practical considerations need to be taken into account to facilitate the widespread uptake of this technique.
Core tip: Neuromuscular ultrasound is now an extension of the clinical examination, providing complimentary structural information to standard electrodiagnostics. Typical ultrasonographic patterns can assist with distinguishing neuropathies of different aetiologies and is increasingly used as a non-invasive biomarker to monitor treatment effect.