Published online Dec 31, 2009. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v1.i1.23
Revised: December 27, 2009
Accepted: December 28, 2009
Published online: December 31, 2009
Currently, there is growing interest regarding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the cardiovascular system. Increased PSA serum levels have been reported after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac surgery, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary artery stenting. The possible role of PSA in cardiac events has been questioned due to the finding of PSA decrease during AMI and by the correlation of variation in PSA levels with coronary lesions and occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. Complexed PSA forms and uncomplexed PSA forms are observed in the bloodstream but the increasing formation of irreversible bound PSA seems to be a crucial finding during AMI. Large studies need to be carried out to confirm these preliminary results and to elucidate unclear aspects. These findings present many potential directions for future research including the role of uncomplexed forms of PSA, the possible distribution of PSA in the heart, the relative expression levels in heart disease states, the mode of expression regulation and other potential specific substrates. The journey of PSA investigation could be longer than initially expected.