Published online Aug 26, 2015. doi: 10.4331/wjbc.v6.i3.240
Peer-review started: January 28, 2015
First decision: March 6, 2015
Revised: May 26, 2015
Accepted: June 9, 2015
Article in press: June 11, 2015
Published online: August 26, 2015
AIM: To investigate the protective effect of paricalcitol and enalapril on renal inflammation and oxidative stress in ApoE-knock out mice.
METHODS: Animals treated for 4 mo as group (1) ApoE-knock out plus vehicle, group (2) ApoE-knock out plus paricalcitol (200 ng thrice a week), (3) ApoE-knock out plus enalapril (30 mg/L), (4) ApoE-knock out plus paricalcitol plus enalapril and (5) normal. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded using tail cuff method. The kidneys were isolated for biochemical assays using spectrophotometer and Western blot analyses.
RESULTS: ApoE-deficient mice developed high BP (127 ± 3 mmHg) and it was ameliorated by enalapril and enalapril plus paricalcitol treatments but not with paricalcitol alone. Renal malondialdehyde concentrations, p22phox, manganese-superoxide dismutase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-β1 levels significantly elevated but reduced glutathione, CuZn-SOD and eNOS levels significantly depleted in ApoE-knock out animals compared to normal. Administration of paricalcitol, enalapril and combined together ameliorated the renal inflammation and oxidative stress in ApoE-knock out animals.
CONCLUSION: Paricalcitol and enalapril combo treatment ameliorates renal inflammation as well as oxidative stress in atherosclerotic animals.
Core tip: Although the protective efficacy of vitamin D and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have been studied in the cardiovascular system of atherosclerotic mice. However this is the first report to investigate the renal protection by paricalcitol and enalapril, alone or in combination in ApoE-deficient atherosclerotic mice. This innovative study clearly shows that vitamin D, ACEI and their combo ameliorated the renal inflammation and oxidative stress in ApoE-knock out animals by depleting the inflammatory and oxidative stress markers as well as restoring the renal antioxidant defense system in atherosclerotic mice. The combination of paricalcitol and enalapril warrants the clinical usefulness in renal atherosclerotic patients.