Observational Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Diabetes. Oct 15, 2016; 7(18): 462-469
Published online Oct 15, 2016. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v7.i18.462
Table 1 The average unit cost of outpatient to which the admissions are made in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer
Average unit cost ($-PPP 2014)
Outpatient clinics
Endocrinology and metabolic diseases27.1
Orthopedics and traumatology25.4
Plastic and reconstructive surgery26.8
Infectious diseases27.3
Cardiovascular surgery27.8
Physical therapy and rehabilitation26.4
Medical ecology and hydroclimatology25.6
Infectious diseases - consultation5.2
Orthopedics and traumatology - consultation
Cardiovascular surgery - consultation
Plastic and reconstructive surgery - consultation
Dermatology - consultation
Table 2 Unit costs of imaging - laboratory tests used in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer
Name of testAverage unit cost ($-PPP 2014)
Imaging tests
Direct foot X-rayIncluded in outpatient clinic admission fee
Unilateral chest X-ray
Doppler ultrasonography32.4
Magnetic resonance angiography55.1
Laboratory tests
Bone biopsy97.6
Tissue culture97.6
Aspiration/swab culture33.8
Bone curettage culture97.6
Bleeding profile (Pre-op)12.2
GlucoseIncluded in outpatient clinic admission fee
C-reactive protein
Red blood cell sedimentation rate
Kidney function tests
Liver function tests
Hepatitis markers
Table 3 Hospitalizations in departments for treatment of diabetic foot ulcer
Admission to departmentRate of patients (%)Hospitalization period
Wound follow-up44.923
Amputation surgery53.942
Revascularization surgery12.05
Plastic and reconstructive surgery - graft/flap24.012
Table 4 Medical and surgical interventions performed in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer and their costs
InterventionsRate of patients (%)Average cost ($-PPP 2014)
Osteomyelitis treatment66.0605.0
Wound debridement10.1813.7
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty6.06250.9
Hyperbaric oxygen treatment8.070.01
Physical therapy and rehabilitation16.631.31
Diabetic foot patient training100.01.5
Table 5 Distributions of annual drug use of patients regarding drugs and other medical materials
Drugs and medical materialsAverage cost ($-PPP 2014)
Antibiotics - in the group of wounds with low risk78.1
Antibiotics - in the group of wounds with moderate risk240.0
Antibiotics - in the group of wounds with serious risk764.5
Orthosis and prosthesis devices961.5
Wound sheath101.8
Table 6 The average annual cost per patient in diabetic foot treatment ($-PPP 2014)
Cost componentsAverage per patient annual cost ($-PPP)
Outpatient costs579.5
Laboratory costs284.8
Imaging test costs283.2
Inpatient costs7357.4
Intervention costs2291.7
Drug costs2545.8
Medical material costs735.0
Complication costs210.3
Total cost per patient14287.7
Table 7 Result of sensitivity analysis for the total costs of diabetic foot ulcer
Cost components$-PPP (n = 5000)
Outpatient costs576.2196.1568.0-584.4565.5
Cost of imaging tests279.4205.6267.9-291.0219.2
Laboratory costs283.364.7278.7-287.7254.8
Inpatient costs7290.35047.96864.8-7715.88969.5
Intervention costs2212.32347.71980.3-2444.41568.2
Drug costs2554.4566.32490.7-2618.22707.4
Cost of medical supplies742.0538.0673.9-810.2961.5
Cost of complications208.7452.7145.0-272.50.0
Total cost14146.85706.613988.6-14304.914615.4