Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Diabetes. Feb 15, 2015; 6(1): 67-79
Published online Feb 15, 2015. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i1.67
Table 1 Characteristics of the relevant autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes[125-134]
AntigenSensitivitySpecificityPercent at onsetAnnotation
ICAIslet cells70%99%70%-90%Single positivity similar predictive; in combination ≥ 3 increasing risk to approximately 90%; age independent
GADAGlutamic acid decarboxylase (65 kDa)65%-75%99%70%-80%
IA2ATyrosine phosphatase-related islet antigen 250%-90%99%50%-70%
IAAProinsulin/insulin74%99%30%-50%Inverse correlation with age; measurement prior to insulin therapy required
ZnT8C terminal domain of the zinc transporter 865%-75%99%60%-80%Declines rapidly after onset of T1D
Table 2 Involvement of family members of patients with type 1 diabetes[5,27,135]
Affected family memberPresence of T1D
First degree relative (general)5%-6%
Monozygotic twin30%-50%
Dizygotic twin6%-10%
Table 3 Prevalence of associated autoimmunity in patients with type 1 diabetes[15,55,56,60,97,100,136-143]
Associated diseasePatients with type 1 diabetes
General population
Prevalence of organ-specific AbsOvert diseasePrevalence of organ-specific AbsOvert disease
Type 1 diabetesICA in 85%-90%100%ICA in 1%-3 %0.1%-1.0%
Hashimoto’s thyroiditisTPO Abs in 15%-30%10%-20%TPO Abs in 2%-10%0.5%-9.0%
Graves’ diseaseTSH-R Abs in 1%-18%3%-6%TSH-R Abs in 1%-2%0.1%-2.0%
Addison’s disease21-OH Abs in 0.7%-2.0%0.5%-0.8%21-OH Abs in 0.6%0.005%-0.140%
Autoimmune hypophysitis and/or hypopituitarismPituitary Abs in 3.6%0.4%-0.9%Pituitary Abs in 0.5%0.24%-0.80%
Autoimmune type A gastritis and pernicious anemiaGastric parietal cell Abs in 13%-25%5%-10% (2%-6%)Gastric parietal cell Abs in 2.5%-12.0%2% (0.15%-1.00%)
Celiac diseaseTransglutaminase Abs in 8%-12%1%-9%Transglutaminase Abs in 0.5%-1.0%0.50%
Table 4 Odds ratio of susceptibility genes for autoimmune endocrinopathies[117,144-160]
Table 5 Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes[13,68,78,161-166]
Incidence< 1:100000/yr1–2:100000/yrExtremely rare
Male/Female ratio3:041:03Male >> Female
GeneticsMonogenetic (AIRE)PolygeneticX-linked (FOXP3)
AutoantibodiesAnti-interferon-α/ω antibodies 100%, additional AbsOrgan-specific Abs depending on the autoimmune componentsANA (42%) SSA (25%) TG Abs (25%)
Prevalence of T1D2%-33%40%-60%80%
Additional autoimmune endocrine componentsHypoparathyroidism (80%-85%) Addison’s disease (60%-70%) Hypogonadism (12%) Autoimmune thyroid disease (10%)Autoimmune thyroid disease (70%-75%) Addison’s disease (40%-50%) Hypoparathyroidism (0%-5%) Hypogonadism (0%-3%) Hypopituitarism (0%-2%)Autoimmune thyroid disease (25%)
Concomitant non-endocrine diseasesMucocutaneous candidiasis (70%-80%); autoimmune hepatitis; autoimmune gastritis; alopecia areata; vitiligo; keratoconjunctivitisAutoimmune gastritis; pernicious anemia; neurodermitis; alopecia areata; myasthenia gravis; systemic lupus erythematosus; rheumatoid arthritis; autoimmune hepatitisMalabsorption; autoimmune skin diseases; multiple sclerosis