Therapeutic and Diagnostic Guidelines
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Diabetes. Apr 15, 2021; 12(4): 306-330
Published online Apr 15, 2021. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v12.i4.306
Table 1 Hurdles in clinical islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes mellitus

Hurdles in clinical islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes mellitus
1Poor access to human islets due to the scarcity of organ donors
2Graft failure (e.g., metabolic pressure, oxidative stress caused by hypoxia or inflammation)
3Continued autoimmunity and alloimmunity
4Immunosuppressive drug therapy
5Behavior of the transplanted cells in the growing body for transplantations performed in adolescents/children
Table 2 Use of pigs as biomedical research subjects

1Similar body size, shape, and anatomy as that of humans
2Human-relevant metabolic physiology and pathophysiology
3Monogastric omnivore
4Multiparity, short gestation, short generation interval, and long-life cycle
5Pancreatic and islet architecture similar to that of humans
6Can undergo the same surgical procedure as in humans
7Tools for genetic alterations are available
8High litter size makes the production of genetically modified pigs less time-consuming in comparison with other livestock species
1Specialized facilities are required
2Costly to maintain
3Ethical issues associated with the use of pigs in biomedical research