Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Diabetes. Aug 15, 2019; 10(8): 421-445
Published online Aug 15, 2019. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v10.i8.421
Table 1 Bone turnover markers in prediabetes/insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
BTMMeaningPre-DM / IRRef.T2DRef.
CTXBone resorption↓ or ↔[136,276,278-280][129,132,134,137,281-286]
TRAPBone resorption↑?[287]↓ or ↔[132,281]
uNTXBone resorption[285]
SclerostinInhibition of bone formation[65][284,285,288,289]
OCBone formation↓ or ↔[128,276-278,280,290]↓ or ↔[129,132,134,281,283,285,286,291-294]
P1NPBone formation↓ or ↔[136,277,280]↓ or ↔[88,132,134,137,282,283,285,286]
BAPBone formationDirect association with IR[295]↔ or ↓ or ↑[132,281,284,286,292,294]
ALPBone formation??↔ or ↑[292-294]
OPGInhibition of bone resorption[296][293,296]
Table 2 Effects of diabetes and prediabetes on bone health
Fracture risk↑↑?
Bone mineral density↔ or ↑↔ or ↑
Bone turnover↓↓↓?
Bone marrow adiposity↑?
Bone matrix - AGEs?
Microarchitecture/geometry↑ cortical porosity↑ cortical porosity↓ trabecular and cortical bone size