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Copyright ©2010 Baishideng.
World J Diabetes. May 15, 2010; 1(2): 48-56
Published online May 15, 2010. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v1.i2.48
Table 1 The various tests for chronic tubular dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy
Test nameUse
Blood urea nitrogen (serum or plasma)Initial diagnosis of acute or chronic kidney disease
Method: Spectrophotometry
Creatinine (serum or plasma)Initial diagnosis of acute or chronic kidney disease
Method: Spectrophotometry
Microalbumin (urine)May be used as a screening test
Method: ImmunoturbidimetricUseful in diabetic patients to assess baseline renal function
Useful in monitoring diabetic nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Creatinine based glomerular filtration rate (estimated)Estimate renal function and use as monitoring tool
Method: Spectrophotometry(Test reports serum creatinine reference intervals)
Cystatin-C based glomerular filtration rate (estimated)May be useful sensitive marker of renal disease; however, test lacks specificity due to reference range inavailability
Method: Nephelometry
Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4)May be used as a marker for early diabetic nephropathy. Limited studies are available
Method: Non-commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA)
AdiponectinShown inverse correlation with renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetes
Method: Competitive radioimmunoassay
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)CTGF excretion is correlated inversely with GFRs
Method: ELISA
Alpha-1-microglobulin (urine)May indicate renal involvement in diabetic patients
Method: Nephelometry
Liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP)Expressed in proximal tubular cells and may associated with severity of diabetic nephropathy. Larger conclusive studies are required
Method: ELISA
Table 2 Expected results for microalbuminuria
24 hr protein (mg)< 150< 500≥ 500
24 hr albumin (mg)< 3030-300> 300
Timed collection for albumin (μg/min)< 2020-200> 200
Spot sample collection for albumin (μg albumin/mg creatinine)< 3030-300> 300