Copyright ©2010 Baishideng.
World J Diabetes. May 15, 2010; 1(2): 27-35
Published online May 15, 2010. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v1.i2.27
Table 1 Pathogens associated with obesity
CDVIncreased body weight in Swiss albino miceAltered hypothalamic integrity; increased cytokine production, hyperinsulinemia and decreased leptin and neuropeptides[15-17,21,22]
RAV-7Stunting, anemia and increased visceral fat in white leghorn chickensDecreased thyroxine, hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia[23,24]
BDVObesity with increased visceral fat in Lewis ratsInflammatory lesions in hypothalamus, increased triglyceride and blood glucose[35,36]
SMAM-1Stunting and increased visceral fat in white leghorn chickensImpaired liver function and lipogenesis and glucagon deficiency[49,50]
Scrapie agentIncreased body weight and fat accumulation in miceAltered brain function and reduced GLUT-1[43,44]
AdenovirusIncreased body weight in chickens, mice, rats and monkeys; seropositive subjects were heavier than seronegative counterpartsIncreased replication, differentiation and lipid accumulation of preadipocytes[51-60]
Table 2 Pathogens associated with increased chronic inflammatory diseases in humans
H. pyloriAffected subjects showed increased insulin resistanceIncreased concentrations of plasma glucose and lipids[64-67]
C. pneumoniaeIncreased metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseaseIncreased production of proinflammatory and circulating cytokines[68-72]
P. gingivalisAdults with dental infections demonstrated higher chance of insulin resistance and diabetesIncreased oxidative stress, advanced glycation end-products and altered immune function[86-90]
HCVInfected patients showed increased chance to develop insulin resistance and diabetesIncreased production of TNF and IL-6[92-95]
HIVHIV patients showed higher insulin resistance (35%) compared to normal subjects (5%)Impaired glucose tolerance and significant hyperinsulinaemia[96,97]