Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Diabetes. Jun 25, 2015; 6(6): 880-888
Published online Jun 25, 2015. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i6.880
Table 1 List of included studies, all describing pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in Indigenous Australians with diabetes in pregnancy
Ref.YearTitleStudy regionYears studiedTotal study sizeTotal women with DIPNumber of Indigenous women with DIPOutcome measuredFindings
Stanley et al[25]1985Congenital malformations in infants of mothers with diabetes and epilepsy in Western Australia, 1980-1982WA1980-19826226522552Congenital anomaliesRelative risk of malformations in Aboriginal DIP - 5.6 compared to 1.9 in non-Aboriginal DIP. Attributable risk however, is low
Bower et al[24]1992Birth defects in the infants of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mothers with diabetes in Western AustraliaWA1980-198411101942798Congenital anomaliesPrevalence ratio for birth defects in Aboriginal children is 4.85 for insulin dependent DM and 3.64 for non-insulin dependent DM, compared to 2.08 and 3.64 respectively for non-Aboriginal children
Blair[23]1996Why do Aboriginal newborns weigh less? Determinants of birthweight for gestationWA1980's1301672159Birth weightAboriginal newborns weigh 180 g less than non-Aboriginal (DIP and non-DIP)
Sharpe et al[22]2005Maternal Diabetes and Congenital Anomalies in South Australia 1986-2000: A Population-Based Cohort StudySA1986-20002822607681432Congenital anomaliesCongenital anomalies significantly higher in mothers with DIP, relative risk 2.01. No difference with ethnicity
Davis et al[28]2009Maternal and neonatal outcomes following diabetes in pregnancy in Far North Queensland, AustraliaNorth Queensland200450683113659C-section, hypoglycaemia, resp distress, abnormal birth weight, term deliveryCompared with non-Indigenous women, Indigenous women had smaller babies, less term deliveries, more severe neonatal hypoglycaemia. Worse outcomes than national and state data
Falhammar et al[19]2010Maternal and neonatal outcomes in the Torres Strait Islands with a sixfold increase in type 2 diabetes in pregnancy over six yearsNorth Queensland1999, 2005/20064543732C-section, large baby, neonatal trauma, hypoglycaemiaDIP infants heavier (700 g), taller (1.9 cm), more neonatal trauma and hypoglycaemia
Porter et al[26]2011What is the impact of diabetes for Australian Aboriginal women when pregnant?WA2000-2007816175987531Birth weight, C-section, stillbirthIndigenous infants’ high birth weight, stillbirth rate = 22/1000 for GDM and 53/1000 for pre-existing DM, compared with 3/100 and 11/1000 for Caucasians
Davis et al[29]2013A threefold increase in gestational diabetes over two years: Review of screening practices and pregnancy outcomes in Indigenous women of Cape York, AustraliaNorth Queensland2006, 20082613131C-section, birth weight, hypoglycaemiaHigher rates of C-section (66 vs 25%), higher birth weight and increased rate of hypoglycaemia (> 40%) in DIP vs non-DIP Indigenous mothers and babies