Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Diabetes. Dec 15, 2020; 11(12): 584-595
Published online Dec 15, 2020. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v11.i12.584
Figure 3
Figure 3 In vitro and in vivo responses to ketone bodies are dependent of their concentrations, with low to moderate concentrations exerting beneficial effects on the endothelium and the cardiovascular system and high concentrations typical of diabetic ketoacidosis being detrimental. AcAc: Acetoacetate; BHB: β-hydroxybutyrate; HUVECs: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells; ICAM-1: Intercellular-1 adhesion molecule; IL: Interleukin; KB: Ketone bodies; LFA-1: Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1; MCP1: Monocyte chemotactic protein-1.