Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Diabetes. May 15, 2019; 10(5): 280-290
Published online May 15, 2019. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v10.i5.280
Table 1 Summary of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering medications
Drug classMechanism of actionClinical eficacyAdverse reactions
StatinsInhibition of HMG coenzyme A ReductaseHighly effectiveMyalgia, myositis, rhabdomyolysis, elevation in liver enzymes, new onset diabetes
EzetimibeDecrease intestinal cholesterol absorption by binding to Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 proteinModerately effective; Safe addition to statin therapyWorsening of liver function, myopathy or rhabdomyolysis if added to statins; Nasopharyngitis, diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection
PCSK9 inhibitorsInhibition of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9Very highly effective in combination with statin therapyInjection site reaction including itching, swelling, erythema and pain
Bile acid sequestrantsBind bile acids in the small intestine and prevent reabsorptionModerately effective, safe addition to statin therapy, not desirable if triglycerides are > 300 mg/dLConstipation, abdominal pain, bloating, drug malabsorption