Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Gastrointest Oncol. Apr 15, 2021; 13(4): 197-215
Published online Apr 15, 2021. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v13.i4.197
Table 1 Non-invasive biomarkers for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma
Type of biomarker
ProteinsAFP; DCP; GALAD score; HES algorithm; ASAP model
MetabolitesA panel based on phenylalanyl-tryptophan and glycocholate
Circulating cell-free DNAsSomatic mutations; DNA methylation; 5-hydroxymethylcytosine
Circulating non-coding RNAsMicro-RNAs (mirR-125b, miR-122, and miR-21); Circular RNAs; Long non-coding RNAs; Exosomal non-coding RNAs
Table 2 Introduction of alpha-fetoprotein-based diagnostic models for hepatocellular carcinoma
GALAD scoreGender, Age, AFP-L3, AFP, and DCP[4,7,8]Validated in different cohorts from Germany, Japan, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom; Surpassing the ability of ultrasound to predict HCC; Excelling in diagnosing early-stage HCC in the setting of cirrhosis or CHB or NASH
HES algorithmCurrent level of AFP, rate of AFP change, level of alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, and age[5,9,10]Validated in the detection of HCC in patients with cirrhosis of any etiology; Superior to the AFP measuring alone in detecting early-stage HCC
ASAP modelAge, gender, AFP, and DCP[6]Validated in the presence of HCC in patients with CHB; Exhibiting 73.8% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity for detecting BCLC stage 0-A HCC