Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastrointest Oncol. Feb 15, 2017; 9(2): 50-61
Published online Feb 15, 2017. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v9.i2.50
Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: A review of diagnosis and management
Joseph R Roberts, Lacey L Siekas, Andrew M Kaz
Joseph R Roberts, Andrew M Kaz, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, United States
Lacey L Siekas, Andrew M Kaz, Gastroenterology Section, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108, United States
Author contributions: Roberts JR reviewed the literature and prepared the manuscript; Siekas LL edited the manuscript and collected data; Kaz AM reviewed the literature and edited the manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All authors declare no conflicts of interest for this article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Andrew M Kaz, MD, Gastroenterology Section, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 S. Columbian Way, S-111-Gastro, Seattle, WA 98108, United States.
Telephone: +1-206-2774270 Fax: +1-206-7642232
Received: August 11, 2016
Peer-review started: August 11, 2016
First decision: September 12, 2016
Revised: October 23, 2016
Accepted: November 27, 2016
Article in press: November 29, 2016
Published online: February 15, 2017
Core Tip

Core tip: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is the precursor lesion to anal squamous cell carcinoma. AIN incidence is low in the general population, but rivals colon cancer in high risk groups, particularly those with human immunodeficiency virus infection and men who have sex with men. Thus, screening for AIN and early anal cancer and treatment of these lesions at expert centers should be considered in high risk populations. Screening is performed using anal cytology and high resolution anoscopy, and treatment consists of either topical or ablative therapies. Finally, human papillomavirus vaccination appears to reduce the rate of AIN and possibly anal cancer.