Published online Apr 15, 2016. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v8.i4.366
Peer-review started: September 8, 2015
First decision: November 6, 2015
Revised: November 15, 2015
Accepted: January 27, 2016
Article in press: January 29, 2016
Published online: April 15, 2016
Core tip: The treatment of pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma is in an exciting phase due to a tremendous surge in knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms that underlie pancreas cancer that has fueled interest in devising novel strategies to target signal transduction factors downstream to kirsten rat sarcoma oncogene, desmoplastic tumor stroma and cancer stem cells. Furthermore, immunotherapy by utilizing vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors is gaining momentum. Alluring results from studies evaluating molecularly targeted therapies have not only proven the feasibility of this approach but are also indicative of a paradigm shift in management of pancreatic cancer in the near future.