Published online Nov 15, 2016. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v8.i11.786
Peer-review started: April 1, 2016
First decision: May 23, 2016
Revised: July 19, 2016
Accepted: September 13, 2016
Article in press: September 18, 2016
Published online: November 15, 2016
Core tip: It has been gradually clear that the chemotherapeutic agents are two-edged sword to have both immune promoting and suppressing effects. The cellular components of the tumor microenvironment including infiltrating T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, regulatory T cells, tumor associated macrophages, myeloid derived suppressor cells and cancer associated fibroblasts could be improved. Based on the better understanding of tumor microenvironment following chemotherapy, the treatment protocol could be modified as personalized medicine and the prognosis of pancreas cancer would be more improved utilizing multimodal treatment strategy.