Published online Nov 15, 2015. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v7.i11.338
Peer-review started: July 11, 2015
First decision: July 28, 2015
Revised: August 17, 2015
Accepted: September 16, 2015
Article in press: September 18, 2015
Published online: November 15, 2015
Core tip: Advances in cancer immunology have led to development of novel therapeutics that focuses on enhancing the immune system against biliary tract cancer. These include peptide- or dendritic cell-based vaccines, adoptive immunotherapy, and immunostimulatory cytokines. Immunotherapy is generally well tolerated with good potential for developing into treatment. The efficacy of immunotherapy may be improved by reversal of tumor-associated immunosuppression and through discovery of novel antigen targets. Integration of targeted immunotherapeutics with molecular profiling of biliary tumor is expected to make a positive impact on advancing towards the goal of developing precision treatment of patients with this highly lethal disease.