Published online May 15, 2014. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v6.i5.112
Revised: December 31, 2013
Accepted: April 11, 2014
Published online: May 15, 2014
Core tip: Esophageal carcinoma is a serious malignancy with regards to mortality and prognosis, and is expected to increase in incidence over the next 10 years. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histological type of esophageal cancer worldwide but the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has dramatically increased in the past 40 years. Esophageal cancer is staged according to the TNM system. Common imaging modalities used in staging include computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound and positron emission tomography scans. Current treatment options include multimodality therapy. Including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Tumor markers of esophageal cancer are an advancing area of research that could potentially lead to earlier diagnosis.