Published online Jul 15, 2018. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v10.i7.159
Peer-review started: January 26, 2018
First decision: March 7, 2018
Revised: May 25, 2018
Accepted: May 30, 2018
Article in press: May 30, 2018
Published online: July 15, 2018
Core tip: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-inhibition is an important therapeutic strategy in HER2-amplified gastro-oesophageal cancer (GOC). A significant proportion of GOC patients display HER2 amplification, yet HER2 inhibition in these patients has not displayed the success seen in HER2 amplified breast cancer. We evaluate current clinical and laboratory evidence surrounding HER2 inhibition in GOC. Inherent differences in the HER2 receptor, signalling pathways, associated microRNA signature and immune environment may partly explain the disappointing clinical trial outcomes seen in GOC. Only with improved understanding of HER2 inhibition can effective treatment be provided in order to improve clinical outcomes for patients.