Case Control Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastrointest Oncol. Jun 15, 2016; 8(6): 520-525
Published online Jun 15, 2016. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v8.i6.520
Genetic polymorphisms of interleukin 1β gene and sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors susceptibility
Dimitrios Karakaxas, Anna Sioziou, Gerasimos Aravantinos, Ahmet Coker, Ioannis S Papanikolaou, Theodoros Liakakos, Christos Dervenis, Maria Gazouli
Dimitrios Karakaxas, Christos Dervenis, Department of General Surgery, Agia Olga Hospital, 14233 Athens, Greece
Anna Sioziou, Maria Gazouli, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Laboratory of Biology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
Gerasimos Aravantinos, Second Department of Medical Oncology, Agioi Anargiroi Cancer Hospital, Κifisia, 14564 Athens, Greece
Ahmet Coker, Department of General Surgery, Ege University School of Medicine, 35040 Izmir, Turkey
Ioannis S Papanikolaou, Hepatogastroenterology Unit, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine and Research Unit, Attikon University General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 12462 Athens, Greece
Theodoros Liakakos, 1st Department of Surgery, Laiko Athens General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
Author contributions: Karakaxas D, Aravantinos G, Coker A, Papanikolaou IS, Liakakos T and Dervenis C collected the samples and the patients data; Karakaxas D, Sioziou A and Gazouli M performed the experiments; Liakakos T, Dervenis C and Gazouli M designed the study, wrote and corrected the manuscript.
Supported by Hellenic Society of Medical Oncology, No. 5839/08-04-2015.
Institutional review board statement: The study was approved by the ethics committee of Attikon Hospital.
Informed consent statement: All patients gave informed consent.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All authors do not have any conflict-of interest to declare.
Data sharing statement: Technical appendix, statistical code, and dataset available from the corresponding author at
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Maria Gazouli, PhD, Assistant Professor of Molecular Biology, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Laboratory of Biology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Michalakopoulou 176, 11527 Athens, Greece.
Telephone: +30-210-7462231 Fax: +30-210-7462231
Received: February 11, 2016
Peer-review started: February 14, 2016
First decision: March 1, 2016
Revised: March 1, 2016
Accepted: March 17, 2016
Article in press: March 17, 2016
Published online: June 15, 2016

AIM: To evaluate the association between the interleukin 1β (IL-1β) polymorphisms and the pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) development.

METHODS: A case-control study was conducted analyzing IL-1β polymorphisms using germline DNA collected in a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer (51 pNET cases, 85 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases, 19 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and 98 healthy controls).

RESULTS: The distribution of genotypes for the -511 C/T polymorphism in the pNET patient groups showed significant difference compared to the control group. It is known that the carriers of the IL-1β -511T allele have increased concentrations of IL-1β. The -511 CT and TT high-expression genotypes were over-represented in pNET patients.

CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggested a possible role of IL-1β -511 C/T genotypes in the pathogenesis of pNETs since the presence of the IL-1β -511 CT and TT genotypes and the T allele was associated with an increased risk of pNET only.

Keywords: Interleukin 1β, Neuroendocrine tumors, Pancreas

Core tip: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are a heterogeneous group of rare neoplasms derived from pancreatic endocrine cells and have significantly different tumor biology and present better prognosis compared with tumors of the exocrine pancreas, like pancreatic adenocarcinomas. It is widely accepted that chronic inflammation contributes to pathogenesis of many pancreatic diseases, including pancreatic carcinogenesis. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a highly active pro-inflammatory cytokine with multiple biological effects, such as directing cancer cells to either neuroendocrine differentiation or to development of adenocarcinoma. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association between the IL-1β polymorphisms and the pNET development.