Published online Apr 15, 2018. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v10.i4.96
Peer-review started: December 17, 2017
First decision: January 6, 2018
Revised: January 10, 2018
Accepted: March 6, 2018
Article in press: March 6, 2018
Published online: April 15, 2018
To clarify the diagnostic performance of endocytoscopy for differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal diminutive polyps.
Patients who underwent endocytoscopy between October and December 2016 at Sano Hospital were prospectively recruited. When diminutive polyps (≤ 5 mm) were detected, the lesions were evaluated by endocytoscopy after being stained with 0.05% crystal violet and 1% methylene blue. The diminutive polyps were classified into five categories (EC 1a, 1b, 2, 3a, and 3b). Endoscopists were asked to take a biopsy from any lesion diagnosed as EC1b (indicator of hyperplastic polyp) or EC2 (indicator of adenoma). We have assessed the diagnostic performance of endocytoscopy for EC2 and EC1b lesions by comparison with the histopathology of the biopsy specimen.
A total of 39 patients with 63 diminutive polyps were analyzed. All polyps were evaluated by endocytoscopy. The mean polyp size was 3.3 ± 0.9 mm. Among the 63 diminutive polyps, 60 were flat and 3 were pedunculated. The mean time required for EC observation, including the time for staining with crystal violet and methylene blue, was 3.0 ± 1.9 min. Histopathologic evaluation showed that 13 polyps were hyperplastic and 50 were adenomas. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EC2 for adenoma compared with EC1b for hyperplastic polyp were 98.0%, 92.3%, 96.8%, 98.0% and 92.3%, respectively. There were only two cases of disagreement between the endoscopic diagnosis made by endocytoscopy and the corresponding histopathological diagnosis.
Endocytoscopy showed a high diagnostic performance for differentiating between neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal diminutive polyps, and therefore has the potential to be used for “real-time histopathology”.
Core tip: Single-Charge Coupled Device integrated type endocytoscopy (OLYMPUS, Japan) is going to be newly launched in 2018. Endocytoscopy with approximately 500-fold magnification capability allows us to observe both structural and cellular atypia in vivo, and is expected to be used as an optical biopsy. In our prospective study, we aimed to clarify the diagnostic performance of endocytoscopy in differentiating neoplasia from non-neoplasia for colorectal diminutive polyps (≤ 5 mm). The diagnostic performance of endocytoscopy met the threshold of the Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable endoscopic Innovations statement for “resect-and-discard” and “diagnose-and-leave” strategies.