Published online May 16, 2015. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v7.i5.446
Peer-review started: October 1, 2014
First decision: October 28, 2014
Revised: November 15, 2014
Accepted: February 4, 2015
Article in press: February 9, 2015
Published online: May 16, 2015
Core tip: Biliary complications are being increasingly encountered in post liver transplant patients because of increased volume of transplants and longer survival of these recipients. Overall management of these complications may be challenging, but with advances in endoscopic techniques, majority of such patients are being dealt with by endoscopists rather than the surgeons. Our review article discusses the recent advances in endoscopic tools and techniques which have proved ERCP with various interventions, like sphincterotomy, bile duct dilatation, and stent placement, to be the mainstay for management of most of these complications. We also deliberate the management dilemmas in patients with surgically altered anatomy, where accessing the bile duct is challenging, and the recent strides towards making this prospect a reality.