Published online Oct 16, 2013. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v5.i10.487
Revised: August 7, 2013
Accepted: August 28, 2013
Published online: October 16, 2013
Core tip: Rectal carcinoids less than 10 mm in diameter can be resected by various endoscopic techniques, such as conventional polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), cap-assisted EMR (EMR-C), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), or transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). There are currently limited comparative data to recommend a specific endoscopic treatment. Therefore, the choice of treatment modalities for small rectal carcinoids depends on the degree of endoscopic or surgical expertise at a given facility. Furthermore, any one of the above treatment methods could have a favorable clinical outcome if performed by gastroenterologists or surgeons with special techniques. EMR-C and TEM can be used as a salvage treatment after incomplete resection by endoscopic polypectomy. The efficacy of endoscopic submucosal resection with ligating device and ESD for salvage treatment requires further investigation.