Published online Dec 16, 2018. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v10.i12.392
Peer-review started: August 27, 2018
First decision: October 5, 2018
Revised: November 20, 2018
Accepted: December 10, 2018
Article in press: December 11, 2018
Published online: December 16, 2018
Core tip: Widespread use of immunotherapy in various types of cancer has led to reports of new associated adverse effects resulting from increased stimulation of the immune system, which can confuse the body’s own tissues and organs with foreign matter, thus leading it to attack the body’s healthy tissue. The most frequent immune-mediated adverse effects include asthenia, general malaise, fever, gastrointestinal toxicity (abdominal pain, diarrhea, and colitis), cutaneous toxicity, hypothyroidism and hepatitis. This review of the endoscopic evaluation of immunotherapy-induced toxicity presents the most typical endoscopic images, the differential diagnosis based on these images, and the initial management.