Published online Jan 16, 2010. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v2.i1.29
Revised: September 1, 2009
Accepted: September 8, 2009
Published online: January 16, 2010
Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) includes obstruction in the antropyloric area or in the bulbar or post bulbar duodenal segments. Though malignancy remains the most common cause of GOO in adults, a significant number of patients have benign disease. The latter include peptic ulcer disease, caustic ingestion, post-operative anastomotic state and inflammatory causes like Crohn’s disease and tuberculosis. Peptic ulcer remains the most common benign cause of GOO. Management of benign GOO revolves around confirmation of the etiology, removing the offending agent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, etc. and definitive therapy. Traditionally, surgery has been the standard mode of treatment for benign GOO. However, after the advent of through-the-scope balloon dilators, endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) has emerged as an effective alternative to surgery in selected groups of patients. So far, this form of therapy has been shown to be effective in caustic-induced GOO with short segment cicatrization and ulcer related GOO. In the latter, EBD must be combined with eradication of H. pylori. Dilation is preferably done with wire-guided balloon catheters of incremental diameter with the aim to reach the end-point of 15 mm. While it is recommended that fluoroscopic control be used for EBD, this is not used by most endoscopists. Frequency of dilation has varied from once a week to once in three weeks. Complications are uncommon with perforation occurring more often with balloons larger than 15 mm. Attempts to augment efficacy of EBD include intralesional steroids and endoscopic incision.