Published online Feb 16, 2019. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v11.i2.133
Peer-review started: January 14, 2019
First decision: January 21, 2019
Revised: February 1, 2019
Accepted: February 13, 2019
Article in press: February 13, 2019
Published online: February 16, 2019
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the recommended technique for biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer. Previous studies have suggested racial, socioeconomic and geographic differences in diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of pancreatic cancer patients.
To examine geographic, racial, socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with utilization of ERCP.
Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results and linked Medicare claims data were used to identify pancreatic cancer patients between 2000-2011. Claims data were used to identify patients who had ERCP and other treatments. The primary outcome was receipt of ERCP. Chi-squared analyses were used to compare demographic information. Trends in use of ERCP over time were assessed using Cochran Armitage test. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for receipt ERCP were calculated using logistic regression, controlling for other characteristics.
Among 32510 pancreatic cancer patients, 14704 (45.2%) underwent ERCP. Patients who had cancer located in the head of the pancreas (aOR 3.27, 95%CI: 2.99-3.57), had jaundice (aOR 7.59, 95%CI: 7.06-8.17), cholangitis (aOR 4.22, 95%CI: 3.71-4.81) or pruritus (aOR 1.42, 95%CI: 1.22-1.66) and lived in lower education zip codes (aOR 1.14, 95%CI: 1.04-1.24) were more likely to receive ERCP. In contrast, patients who were older (aOR 0.88, 95%CI: 0.83, 0.94), not married (aOR 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86, 0.98), and lived in a non-metropolitan area (aOR 0.89, 95%CI: 0.82, 0.98) were less likely to receive ERCP. Compared to white patients, non-white/non-black patients (aOR 0.83, 95%CI: 0.70-0.97) were less likely to receive ERCP. Patients diagnosed later in the study period were less likely to receive ERCP (aOR 2004-2007 0.85, 95%CI: 0.78-0.92; aOR 2008-2011 0.76, 95%CI: 0.70-0.83). After stratifying by indications for ERCP including jaundice, racial differences persisted (aOR black patients 0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.95, nonwhite/nonblack patients 0.73, 95%CI: 0.58-0.91). Among patients with jaundice, those who underwent surgery were less likely to undergo ERCP (aOR 0.60, 95%CI: 0.52, 0.69).
ERCP utilization in pancreatic cancer varies based on patient age, marital status, and factors related to where the patient lives. Further studies are needed to guide appropriate biliary intervention for these patients.
Core tip: The use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for pancreatic cancer patients varies nationally by non-clinical factors. Further studies and guidelines are needed to guide appropriate biliary interventions for these patients.