Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Hepatol. May 8, 2016; 8(13): 573-590
Published online May 8, 2016. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i13.573
Table 1 Hepatocellular carcinoma and occupational exposure to infective agents
Risk agentCAS No. Occupational exposureIARC class
Infective risk
HBV - Health care workers[4,38,41,44], waste operators[38,44] Group 1[34]
HCV - Health care workers[38,39,61] Group 1[34]
Aflatoxin B1 1162-65-8 Paper mill and sugar factory; poultry production; rice mill; waste management; swine industry; agri-food industry; wheat handling; textile manufacturing[77,78,87-91,93,96] Group 1[76]
Table 2 Hepatocellular carcinoma and occupational exposure to chemical agents
Risk agentCAS No. Occupational exposureIARC class
Non-infective risk
VCM 75-01-4 Plastics, plumbing, cabling, house framing, waterproof clothing, medical devices and food packaging industry[98,99,102,103,105-108,111,112,114-120] Group 1[76]
TCE 79-01-6 Dry cleaning; paint stripping; metal degreasing; production of chlorinated chemical compounds; shoe manufacturing; aircraft/aerospace, electronics and printing industry[125,127] Group 1[129]
PCE 127-18-4 Dry cleaning; textile processing; metal degreasing[138] Group 2A[129]
DDT 50-29-3 Farming industry[141,145] Group 2B[148]
N-nitrosamines 35576-91-1 Plastic, rubber and pharmacological manufacturing; farming industry; metalworking; electrical component production and use; gasoline and lubricant additives, production and use[159-165] Group[160,161]
TCDD 1746-01-6 Waste management; paper mill; timber manufacturing; iron and steel manufacturing; electric power industry[175,179] Group 1[76]
PeCDF 57117-31-4 Cement and metalworking industry; chemical manufacturing[171,172,175] Group 1[76]
PCB 1336-36-3 Electrical industry, plastic and chemical industry; maintenance/repair technicians of PCB devices[175,186-190] 1Group[76,207]
PBB Electronics recycling industry; maintenance/repair technicians of PBB devices[209-212] Group 2A[207]
Chloral 75-87-6 Insecticides and herbicide production; polyurethane foam production and use[125,214,215] Group 2A[216]
Chloral hydrate 302-17-0 Pharmaceutical producing; health care workers; laboratory research; water disinfection by chlorination[129,216] Group 2A[216]
O-toluidine 95-53-4 Dye production and use; herbicide and pharmaceutical production; rubber industry; clinical laboratories[220-222,227,228] Group 1[76]
MOCA 101-14-4 Rubber and polyurethane industry[220,230-232] Group 1[76]
4-ABP 92-67-1 Rubber industry; dyes production[220,235-238] Group 1[76]
BZD and dyes metabolized to BZD92-87-5 Dye production and use; clinical laboratories[220,247] Group 1[76]
Table 3 Hepatocellular carcinoma and occupational exposure to metals
Risk agentCAS No. Occupational exposureIARC class
Non-infective risk
As 7440-38-2 Timber manufacturing; pesticide use; As extraction industry; lead processing; pharmaceutical industry; glass industry; leather preservatives; antifouling paints; agrochemical production; microelectronics and optical industries; non-ferrous metal smelters; coal-fired power plants[254-258] Group 1[263]
Cd 7440-43-9 Cd mining; manufacturing of Cd-containing ores and products; Ni-Cd battery manufacturing, Cd alloy production[275,277,278] Group 1[263]