Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Hepatol. Mar 27, 2015; 7(3): 289-303
Published online Mar 27, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i3.289
Table 1 Geographic distribution of genotypes by continent
RegionGenotype distribution
AfricaSubsaharan Africa (Egypt, Algeria, Libya)Genotype D
West Africa (Guinea Bissau, Ghana, Cameroon)Genotype E and also A
Central AfricaGenotype E and also A
East Africa (Malawi, Tanzania)Genotype A
South AfricaGenotype A
EuropeMediterranean Basin (Greece, Italy, Spain)Genotype D in majority. Gentype A also seen in Spain
Western EuropeMixtures of A-D from various migrant groups
Eastern EuropeA (Czech republic, Poland) and D (Russia, Croatia, Romania)
AmericasNorth AmericaMixtures of A-D from various migrant populations Genotype F and B in Alaskan natives
Central AmericaGenotype H (Mexico) Genotype F (Costa Rica)
South AmericaGenotype F predominant and Genotypes A and D in Brazil/Argentina
AsiaWestern Asia ( Iran, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Turkey)Genotype D
Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan)Genotype D
South Asia (India and Pakistan)Genotype D in India but also Gentoype A
Table 2 Prevalence of different hepatitis B virus genotypes in Southeast Asian countries and China
No. instudyGenotypedistributionNotesRef.
Laos38642.2% B 55.4% C 2.4% not typable ? ICohort of patients from Vientiane city and central provinces. 19 patients did not group into genotype A-H ? genotype I[55]
Cambodia1267% C , 33% B (subtype 4)[56]
2272% C 28% B[57]
Vietnam7651% B, 48.7% CChronic cohort[58]
4075% B 18% C 2.5% B + C, 5% not determinedBased in Hanoi[59]
Indonesia5476% B[60]
24% C
54100% BSurabaya[61]
2785% C 7.4% B 7.4% DPapua[62]
Malaysia8660% BGenotype B 80% in ethnic Chinese[63]
34% CGenotypes B and C equal prevalence in Ethnic Malays
2% DGentoype D in Indian patients
5156.9% B 31.4% C 7.8% B + C 2% each D and E[64]
Thailand22486.6% C (Subgeno C1) 11.2% B 0.44% each of A and D 3 suspected recombinationsMyanmar ethnicity 97.5% genotype C Laos ethnicity 71% C 26% B, Cambodia 84% C, 12% B[65]
21689.3% C 7.4% B, 1.9% B + C, 0.5% ANorthern Thailand adult voluntary blood donors[66]
5390.6% C 7.5% B 1.9% B + CChildren in Chiang Mai[67]
33273.2% C 20.8% B 3.3% A 2.7% unclassifiedCohort included CHB and HCC patients and found that genotype B was not associated with HCC in younger patients[68]
Philippines10051% A 22% B 27% C[69]
5028% A 12% B 26% C 6% Mixed A + C/A + B + C 28% Non typable[70]
China10136% B 64% CHong Kong 42% B Shnaghai 39% B Beijing 20% B[71]
12133% B 63.6% C 1.7% B/C 1.7% DFrom Beijing China[72]
12638.1% B 54.8% C 0.8% D, 3.2% unknown 1.6% B/C, 1.6% A/CYunnan China[73]
1429.2% B 88% C 2.8% DNorthern China (Harbin University China)[74]
1424.2% A 14.1% B 78.9% C 1.4% DSouthern China (Nanning)[75]
78663.23% B 34.99% C 0.89% A and D eachSouthern China (Guizhou )[76]
2201.4% A 17.2% B 81.4% CShanghai China[77]
China (Hong Kong)7761.5% A 32.5% B 62.6% C 3.4% MixedHong Kong[78]
Tibet2696% C/D recombinant 4% CSequences based on surface Ag gene showed that 25 clustered with genotype D and 1 clustered with genotype C. However based on core gene all clustered with genotype C[79] .
Table 3 Clinical associations with hepatitis B virus genotypes
Progression to chronicity++++++++++
Histological inflammation+++++++++++/-
Histological fibrosis+++++++/-
Association with advanced liver disease+++++++++/-
Association with HCC+ (subgeno A1)+++++++ (subgeno F2)
Early HBeAg seroconversion++++++++++++
Sustained remission after HBeAg Seroconversion++++++++++++
HBsAg clearance++++++++
Response to IFN Tx+++++++/-++++
Association with PreCore mutations-+++++++++++ (F1 but not F2)
Association with BCP mutation++++++