Published online Feb 28, 2016. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i6.307
Peer-review started: August 21, 2015
First decision: October 13, 2015
Revised: January 11, 2016
Accepted: January 27, 2016
Article in press: January 29, 2016
Published online: February 28, 2016
Core tip: Bacterial infection is common and accounts for major morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are immunocompromised and increased susceptibility to develop spontaneous bacterial infections, hospital-acquired infections, and a variety of infections from uncommon pathogens. Once infection develops, the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines on a pre-existing hemodynamic derangement in cirrhosis further predispose the development of serious complications such as shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure, renal failure, and death. The incidence of resistant bacteria has continually increased, especially in healthcare-associated settings. Preventive measures, early recognition and proper management are necessary to minimize morbidity and mortality of infections in cirrhosis.