Published online Apr 28, 2016. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i12.533
Peer-review started: January 10, 2016
First decision: February 22, 2016
Revised: March 8, 2016
Accepted: April 5, 2016
Article in press: April 6, 2016
Published online: April 28, 2016
Core tip: The risk of new cancers is significantly increased after liver transplantation (LT), and is driven by patient factors, oncogenic viruses and lifelong immunosuppression. De novo malignancy is a major risk factor for mortality after LT, equaling the risk of cardiovascular disease or infectious diseases. The risk of de novo malignancies may be reduced by attention to patient risk factors and minimization of immunosuppression when possible. Ultimately rigorous surveillance is needed to allow for early diagnosis and attenuation of mortality risk.