Topic Highlight
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Hepatol. Dec 8, 2015; 7(28): 2792-2810
Published online Dec 8, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i28.2792
Hepatitis C genotype 4: The past, present, and future
Tawhida Y Abdel-Ghaffar, Mostafa M Sira, Suzan El Naghi
Tawhida Y Abdel-Ghaffar, Pediatric Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
Tawhida Y Abdel-Ghaffar, Suzan El Naghi, Yassin Abdel Ghaffar Charity Center for Liver Disease and Research, Cairo 11566, Egypt
Mostafa M Sira, Pediatric Hepatology Department, National Liver Institute, Menofiya University, Shebin El-koom, Menofiya 32511, Egypt
Suzan El Naghi, Pediatric Department, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo 11441, Egypt
Author contributions: Abdel-Ghaffar TY, Sira MM and El Naghi S were involved in the study concept and design and shared in preparation; El Naghi S wrote the article; Abdel-Ghaffar TY and Sira MM reviewed the article.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest for this article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Suzan El Naghi, MD, Pediatric Department, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute, 10 - Kasr El Aini Street, Cairo 11441, Egypt.
Telephone: +20-2-24197255 Fax: +20-2-23504240
Received: April 22, 2015
Peer-review started: April 24, 2015
First decision: July 21, 2015
Revised: September 24, 2015
Accepted: November 24, 2015
Article in press: November 25, 2015
Published online: December 8, 2015
Core Tip

Core tip: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 4 represents 12%-15% of total global HCV infection. It is higher in limited resource countries. Response rates to a 48-wk peg-interferon/ribavirin combination ranges from 40%-69% for HCV-GT-4. Direct-acting antivirals may significantly improve treatment outcomes in HCV- GT-4, but use of these agents in countries endemic for HCV-GT-4 is currently precluded by the very high costs. A new hepatitis C vaccine from GlaxoSmithKline has shown promise in early clinical tests, prompting strong and broad immune responses. Another Egyptian clinical trial in the field of HCV vaccination: Clinical Trials phases I and II, started on March 2011. Identifier NCT01718834.