Published online Aug 27, 2014. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v6.i8.570
Revised: April 29, 2014
Accepted: May 28, 2014
Published online: August 27, 2014
Core tip: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the principal causes for chronic liver disease. Recent reports suggested a positive association between cytokines secreted by the adipocytes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, and interleukin (IL)-6 in NAFLD. Furthermore, hepatic natural killer T-cells produce IL-13 and IL-4; IL-13 may then activate hepatic stellate cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and initiate oxidative stress, iron overload and fibrosis. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), particularly PPAR-α in cases of hepatic steatosis, may facilitate the activity of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines. Hence, PPAR-γ and PPAR-α ligands have been considered for administration to prevent the initial inflammatory reactions and render protection to the liver cells.