Published online Feb 27, 2018. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v10.i2.254
Peer-review started: November 28, 2017
First decision: December 18, 2017
Revised: December 31, 2017
Accepted: January 23, 2018
Article in press: January 23, 2018
Published online: February 27, 2018
Core tip: Spontaneous bacterial (SBP) and spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) are infectious complications in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). Renal impairment, severity of underlying liver dysfunction, and infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms are associated with a fatal prognosis in SBP. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with LC and with a high risk of developing SBP, gastrointestinal bleeding, or a previous episode of SBP, but the increase in the risk of infections caused by MDR organisms is of concern. Increased mortality of SFP compared with that of SBP may partially result from delayed diagnosis and starting of antifungal therapy.