Published online May 27, 2021. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i5.595
Peer-review started: January 13, 2021
First decision: February 24, 2021
Revised: March 11, 2021
Accepted: March 18, 2021
Article in press: March 18, 2021
Published online: May 27, 2021
Biliary drainage, either by the stent-in-stent (SIS) or side-by-side (SBS) technique, is often required when treating a malignant hilar biliary obstruction (MHBO). Both methods differ from each other and have distinct advantages.
To compare both techniques regarding their efficacy and safety in achieving drainage of MHBO.
A comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, BIREME, Cochrane) was conducted and grey literature from their inception until December 2020 with no restrictions regarding the year of publication or language, since there was at least an abstract in English. The included studies compared SIS and SBS techniques through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Outcomes analyzed included technical and clinical success, early and late adverse events (AEs), stent patency, reintervention, and procedure-related mortality.
Four cohort studies and one randomized controlled trial evaluating a total of 250 patients (127 in the SIS group and 123 in the SBS group) were included in this study. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning the evaluated outcomes, except for stent patency, which was higher in the SIS compared with the SBS technique [mean difference (d) = 33.31; 95% confidence interval: 9.73 to 56.90, I2 = 45%, P = 0.006].
The SIS method showed superior stent patency when compared to SBS for achieving bilateral drainage in MHBO. Both techniques are equivalent in terms of technical success, clinical success, rates of both early and late AEs, reintervention, and procedure-related mortality.
Core Tip: Biliary drainage is often required when treating a malignant hilar biliary obstruction. There are two types of drainage: Stent-in-stent (SIS) and side-by-side (SBS) techniques. Both of them differ from each other and have distinct advantages. This study aimed to compare both techniques regarding their efficacy and safety. Our systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the SIS and SBS techniques; except for stent patency which was superior in the SIS technique. The choice of palliation for drainage must be guided by both local expertise and resource availability.