Therapeutic and Diagnostic Guidelines
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Stem Cells. Aug 26, 2020; 12(8): 706-720
Published online Aug 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i8.706
Table 1 Multi-Phase Laser-cavitation Single Cell Analyzer can perform both circulating tumor cells enumeration and single-cell molecular characterization
Technology for CTCCTC countMolecular profileSingle CTC molecular profileRef.
Proposed MLSCA (uFACS and on-chip RT/PCR)YesYesYes
CTC chip micropostYesYesNo[47,48]
Isolate CTC by size with filterYesYesNo[49]
Flow cytometry (i.e. FACS)YesYesNo[50]
Multiphoton intravital flow cytometryYesNoNo[51]
laser scanning cytometryYesNoNo[52]
Photoacoustic flowmetryYesNoNo[53]
Fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST)YesNoNo[54]
ICC (Ab)
CellSearch™ (Immunomagnetic enrichment, FDA approved)YesYesNo[55]
Immunomagnetic cell sorting for positive or negative selectionYesYesNo[56]
Epithelial immunospot (EPISPOT) of CTC secreted proteinsYesNoNo[57]
Density gradient centrifugationYesYesNo[58]
Collagen adhesion matrix ingestion assayYesNoNo[60]
PCR detection of tumor-derived nucleic acid in serum/plasmaNoYesNo[61]
RT/PCR detection of tumor-specific markers in nucleated blood cellsNoYesNo[62]
Membrane arrays for detecting multiple tumor-specific mRNANoYesNo[63]
Table 2 Therapeutics targets and corresponding agents in multiple myeloma and artificial intelligence medicine
Mechanism of action (clinical phenotype)TargetAgentRef.
Resistance to chemotherapy in MMBcl-2/Bcl-X(L)/Bcl-w (antiapoptotic proteins)Inhibitor ABT-737 (with bortezomib-, dexamethasone-(Dex) and thalidomide)[64]
Dexamethasone-resistance in MMHeat shock protein-272-methoxyestardiol and bortezomib/proteasome-inhibitor[65]
JunB-mediated phenotype in dexamethasone-resistant MM cellsJunB: AP-1 transcription factor familyKnockdown AP-1/JunB to down-regulate MM cell proliferation, survival and drug resistance[15]
Cyclin D dysregulation and overexpression/growth arrest or caspase-dependent apoptosis in MM cellscyclin D1P276-00, a novel small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor[66]
Sensitivity to bortezomib in MM cellsCav-1Sensitivity to bortezomib of RPIM8226 MM cells after co-cultured with down-regulated Cav-1 expression HUVECs[67]
Heartbeat/pulse patterns – AI relevanceFlattening of the flow velocity (pulse) patterns correlates with the local severity of arteriosclerotic disease[68]
Preventive medicine using pulse oximetry screening
Pulse transit time (PTT) is the time it takes a pulse wave to travel between two arterial sites R-wave-gated photo-plethysmography as of measurement of PTT as a surrogate for intra-thoracic pressure changes in obstructive sleep apnea)[69]
Pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart defects[70]
AI-Medicine algorithmAlgorithm to track changes in cardiorespiratory interactions (heartbeat intervals and respiratory recordings under dynamic breathing patterns)[71]
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) with an algorithm for quantifying instantaneous RSA as applied to heartbeat interval and respiratory recordings to track changes in cardiorespiratory interactions elicited during meditation, otherwise not evidenced in control resting states)[72]
The tongue is a critical organ for respiration and speech[73]
18 voice features with posttraumatic stress disorder[74]
Breathing pattern parameters: Peak airway pressure (Pawpeek), mean airway pressure (Pawmean), tidal volume (VT, mL/kg), minute volume, respiratory muscle unloading (peak electricity of diaphragm (EAdipeak), P 0.1, VT/EAdi), clinical outcomes (ICU mortality, duration of ventilation days, ICU stay time, hospital stay time[75]