Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Stem Cells. Sep 26, 2020; 12(9): 952-965
Published online Sep 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i9.952
Table 1 Difference among tendon stem/progenitor cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and adipose-derived stem cells for tendon repair
MorphologyFibroblast-like shape[22]Spindle-shaped[35]Spindle-shaped[45]
PhenotypesPositive: CD13, C29, CD44, CD54, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146 and CD166 Negative: CD2, CD3, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD18, CD19, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD56, CD71, CD106, CD117, CD123, and CD235a[4,22,23]Positive: CD13, CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105 Negative: CD14, CD19, CD34, CD45[35,37]Positive: CD13, C29, CD44, CD49d, CD54, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD166 Negative: CD14, CD19, CD31, CD34, CD45 and CD71[23,35,46]
ProliferationTSPCs = BM-MSCs[4]; TSPCs ≤ ASCs[23]BM-MSCs = TSPCs[4]; BM-MSCs < ASCs[38]ASCs > BM-MSCs[38]; ASCs ≥ TSPCs[23]
Tenogenic differentiationSpontaneous differentiation[20], or promoted by growth factors[120] and mechanical loading[75]Induced by growth factors[36] and mechanical loading[39]Induced by growth factor supplements[48,49] and extracorporeal shockwave[50]
Evidence for tendon repair in vitroTenogenic differentiation[20,75,120] and high proliferation potential[4,28]Tenogenic differentiation and high proliferation potential[4]; enhanced secretion of bioactive factors[40] and the deposition of ECM[41]Tenogenic differentiation and high proliferation rate[51]
Evidence for tendon repair in vivoHigh proliferation and activation of tenogenesis[29]; improved collagen alignment and biomechanical properties[30,31]Improved histological and biomechanical properties; increased expression of collagen[42,43]Modulation of microenvironment[55]; enhancing the secretion of collagen and mechanical strength of tendon[52,53]
Evidence for tendon repair in clinicsNoneFour registered trials, but the results are not availableReduction of pain, tendon defect areas post intervention[56]
AdvantagesSpontaneous tenogenic differentiation[20]; higher proliferation and therapeutic effectiveness[31]Easier acquirement[33]; enhanced secretion of bioactive factors[40]; increased the deposition of collagenous proteins[41]Easier acquirement[34]; inhibition of osteogenic differentiation[55]; confirmed clinical outcome[56]
LimitationsLimited number obtained from isolation[63]High potential of osteogenic differentiation[44]; lower therapeutic effectiveness than TSPCs[31]Risk of fibrotic tissue formation, scarring[57], and forming adipocytes[58]