Published online Aug 26, 2016. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v8.i8.231
Peer-review started: May 28, 2016
First decision: July 6, 2016
Revised: July 21, 2016
Accepted: August 6, 2016
Article in press: August 8, 2016
Published online: August 26, 2016
Core tip: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms are becoming an increasing problem as the survival of cancer patients lengthens. The etiology has an important influence on the biological characteristics, time to onset and prognosis of the resultant disease. Although treatment of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms represents a substantial challenge due to prior treatment and comorbidities, cure is possible, especially with allogeneic stem cell transplantation, particularly in those with good-risk karyotype. Ultimately, individual assessment of risk factors may lead to developing risk-adapted therapies to reduce the incidence of this serious complication without affecting therapy for the underlying disorders.