Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Stem Cells. Mar 26, 2021; 13(3): 193-207
Published online Mar 26, 2021. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v13.i3.193
Functional maturation of immature β cells: A roadblock for stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes
Zi-Yi Sun, Ting-Yan Yu, Fang-Xu Jiang, Wei Wang
Zi-Yi Sun, Ting-Yan Yu, Fang-Xu Jiang, Wei Wang, Department of Endocrinology, Xiang’an Hospital of Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361100, Fujian Province, China
Fang-Xu Jiang, School of Biomedical Science, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Australia
Fang-Xu Jiang, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth 6000, Australia
Author contributions: Sun ZY wrote the paper; Yu TY drew the figures; Jiang FX and Wang W proposed the ideas, revised the manuscript, and finally approved the submission.
Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 81471081; the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China, No. 2019J01010; Xiamen Research Foundation for Science and Technology Project No. 3502Z20194037; and Scientific Research Foundation for Advanced Talents, Xiang’an Hospital of Xiamen University, No. PM201809170005.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interests for this article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Wei Wang, MD, Doctor, Department of Endocrinology, Xiang’an Hospital of Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, No. 2000 Xiang'an East Road, Xiang'an District, Xiamen 361100, Fujian Province, China.
Received: August 29, 2020
Peer-review started: August 29, 2020
First decision: January 7, 2021
Revised: January 19, 2021
Accepted: February 25, 2021
Article in press: February 25, 2021
Published online: March 26, 2021
Core Tip

Core Tip: Type 1 diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by absolute lack of insulin. Current insulin replacement therapy supplies insulin in a non-physiological way and is associated with devastating complications. Diabetes stem cell therapy with insulin-producing β-like cells differentiated in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells has recently attracted great interest in the academic community and the general public. Although great progress has been made, the β-like cells differentiated in vitro still have many defects. Here we summarize the latest knowledge on β-cell maturation in vivo and in vitro and the vital roles of key molecules in this process, in order to explore the current problems in diabetes stem cell therapy.