Published online Jan 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i1.55
Peer-review started: March 8, 2019
First decision: April 16, 2019
Revised: May 13, 2019
Accepted: November 29, 2019
Article in press: November 29, 2019
Published online: January 26, 2020
Regeneration of critical-sized bone defects remains a major clinical problem in the field of orthopaedic surgery, and therefore, novel treatment methods must be developed. Currently, the management of such defects mainly depends on the use of autologous bone grafts. However, complications such as donor site morbidity drive us to find other lines of treatments.
To investigate whether allogenic bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) seeded on platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membranes have the ability to regenerate critical-sized mandibular defects in rats and, therefore, whether this combination therapy is a suitable approach for developing a new line of treatment for such bony defects.
The objectives of the present study were to create critical-sized mandibular defects, to seed BMSCs on PRF membranes, to fill these defects with the combination therapy, and finally, to assess the possible regenerative effect of PRF membranes with or without allogeneic BMSCs on such bony defects in rat models.
We induced critically sized defects and treated these defects with a combined therapy, followed by performing histological and immunohistochemical analyses. The data of the histomorphometric analysis were statistically analysed.
The percentage area of newly formed bone was significantly higher in the defects treated with the combined therapy than in the defects treated with the PRF membrane alone and untreated defects. However, the amount of granulation tissue formation and the number of inflammatory cells were lower in the defects treated with the combined therapy than in the defects treated with the PRF membrane alone.
The combined therapy of BMSCs and PRF membrane showed a regenerative effect in critically sized bone defects and may represent a potential therapeutic alternative for bone regeneration.
Based on our results, we believe that BMSCs seeded on platelet-rich plasma could be clinically applied for treating critically sized bone defects and promoting wound regeneration in the future.