Published online May 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i5.381
Peer-review started: January 23, 2020
First decision: April 1, 2020
Revised: April 2, 2020
Accepted: April 23, 2020
Article in press: April 23, 2020
Published online: May 26, 2020
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. There is a real need to develop treatment strategies for reducing neurological deficits in stroke survivors, and stem cell (SC) therapeutics appear to be a promising alternative for stroke therapy that can be used in combination with approved thrombolytic or thrombectomy approaches. However, the efficacy of SC therapy depends on the SC homing ability and engraftment into the injury site over a long period of time. Nonetheless, tracking SCs from their niche to the target tissues is a complex process.
To evaluate SC migration homing, tracking and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of stroke using nanoparticles
A systematic literature search was performed to identify articles published prior to November 2019 that were indexed in PubMed and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) Studies that used in vivo models of stroke or ischemic brain lesions; (2) Studies of SCs labeled with some type of contrast agent for cell migration detection; and (3) Studies that involved in vivo cellular homing and tracking analysis.
A total of 82 articles were identified by indexing in Scopus and PubMed. After the inclusion criteria were applied, 35 studies were selected, and the articles were assessed for eligibility; ultimately, only 25 studies were included. Most of the selected studies used SCs from human and mouse bone marrow labeled with magnetic nanoparticles alone or combined with fluorophore dyes. These cells were administered in the stroke model (to treat middle cerebral artery occlusion in 74% of studies and for photothrombotic induction in 26% of studies). Fifty-three percent of studies used xenogeneic grafts for cell therapy, and the migration homing and tracking evaluation was performed by magnetic resonance imaging as well as other techniques, such as near-infrared fluorescence imaging (12%) or bioluminescence assays (12%).
Our systematic review provided an up-to-date evaluation of SC migration homing and the efficacy of cellular therapy for stroke treatment in terms of functional and structural improvements in the late stage.
Core tip: The systematic review provided an up-to-date evaluation of stem cell (SC) migration homing, using nanoparticles based on the technical and scientific aspects and combined molecular images. Thus, the efficacy of SC therapy depends on the SC homing ability and engraftment into the injury site over a long period of time, providing functional and structural outcomes in preclinical studies, but limited evidence of outcomes in clinical studies.