Published online May 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i5.339
Peer-review started: January 1, 2020
First decision: March 5, 2020
Revised: April 7, 2020
Accepted: April 18, 2020
Article in press: April 18, 2020
Published online: May 26, 2020
The postnatal skeleton undergoes growth, modeling, and remodeling. The human skeleton is a composite of diverse tissue types, including bone, cartilage, fat, fibroblasts, nerves, blood vessels, and hematopoietic cells. Fracture nonunion and bone defects are among the most challenging clinical problems in orthopedic trauma. The incidence of nonunion or bone defects following fractures is increasing. Stem and progenitor cells mediate homeostasis and regeneration in postnatal tissue, including bone tissue. As multipotent stem cells, skeletal stem cells (SSCs) have a strong effect on the growth, differentiation, and repair of bone regeneration. In recent years, a number of important studies have characterized the hierarchy, differential potential, and bone formation of SSCs. Here, we describe studies on and applications of SSCs and/or mesenchymal stem cells for bone regeneration.
Core tip: Stem cell-based therapies have multiple applications in the field of bone regeneration. Recent research has demonstrated the advantageous use of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells for bone modeling and remodeling. Our analysis indicates the hierarchy, self-renewal and differential potential of SSCs and the functions of SSCs, mesenchymal stem cells, and circulating progenitor cells on bone regeneration.