Published online Jun 26, 2019. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v11.i6.337
Peer-review started: February 26, 2019
First decision: March 15, 2019
Revised: March 29, 2019
Accepted: May 6, 2019
Article in press: May 6, 2019
Published online: June 26, 2019
Organs whose source is the mesoderm lineage contain a subpopulation of stem cells that are able to differentiate among mesodermal derivatives (chondrocytes, osteocytes, adipocytes). This subpopulation of adult stem cells, called “mesenchymal stem cells” or “mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)”, contributes directly to the homeostatic maintenance of their organs; hence, their senescence could be very deleterious for human bodily functions. MSCs are easily isolated and amenable their expansion in vitro because of the research demanding to test them in many diverse clinical indications. All of these works are shown by the rapidly expanding literature that includes many in vivo animal models. We do not have an in-depth understanding of mechanisms that induce cellular senescence, and to further clarify the consequences of the senescence process in MSCs, some hints may be derived from the study of cellular behaviour in vivo and in vitro, autophagy, mitochondrial stress and exosomal activity. In this particular work, we decided to review these biological features in the literature on MSC senescence over the last three years.
Core tip: The point of interest of this work is the behaviour of the mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) through aging, which can occur over time in the culture (in vitro) or in its own physiological niche (in vivo). This review defines the current knowledge published in the MSC field that focuses mainly on the mechanisms that influence its senescence in vivo and in vitro in the last three years. Three cellular mechanisms are of special importance in this review, since they can decisively influence the behaviour of MSC in aging, such as autophagy, oxidative stress and the production of extracellular vesicles.