Case Report
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Gastroenterol. Feb 14, 2020; 26(6): 686-695
Published online Feb 14, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i6.686
Table 1 Patient details, neoplasm localization, pathology, treatment, and follow-up of reported functional gallbladder neuroendocrine neoplasms
CaseRef.Age in yr, sexPresentationPhysical examinationPrimary sitePathologyTreatmentFollow-up
1Monier et al[12]60, MEpigastric pain, jaundice, flushing, cough, wheezingNAfundus of GBSize: NA; PI: ~ 60%; IHC: Chromogranin A (+), synaptophysin (+), CD56 (+), CK7 (+), polyclonal carcinoembr-yonic antigen (+), Caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (+), S-100 (−), CK20 (−), CD10 (−), CK19 (−), prostate-specific antigen (−),thyroid transcription factor-1 (−), HepParl (−)NANA
2Lin et al[13]65, F3 mo progressive generalized weakness and anorexiaProximal muscle weakness, hirsutism, moon face, buffalo humpBody of GBSize: NA; PI: NA; IHC: Chromogranin (+), synaptophysin (+), adrenocortico-tropic hormone -stain (+)Cholecystect-omy and wedge-shaped liver resectionHepatic metastasis 2 mo after surgery
3Howlett et al[14] and Coates et al[15]68, FNACushing’s syndromeGBSize: NA; PI: NA; IHC: Neuron specific enolase immunostain-ing (+)NASurvived for 1 mo following presentation
4Ahn et al[16]52, FEpisodic hypoglycemia of 10 mo durationNAGBSize: 10.3 cm × 7 cm × 5.3 cm; PI: NA; IHC: CD56 (+), chromogranin (+), synaptophysin (+), immunochem-ical staining for insulin (+)Hepatic segmentectomy, cholecystecto-my, pancreaticosp-lenectomyNA
5Salimi et al[17]79, MWatery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weakness for several weeksNAGBSize: 0.5 cm in thickness and 1.5 cm in diameter; PI: NA; IHC: Neuron specific enolase immunostain-ing (+), chromogranin (+)NAThe patient died on his 3rd day of hospitalization from multiple organ failure
6Present case65, MA history of flushing for 2 moThe skin over face, neck, upper chest and limbs flushed and was scalyneck of GBSize: 4.0 cm × 2.0 cm; PI: Ki-67 (80%+++); IHC: Chromogranin A (+), synaptophysin (+), pan-CK (+), CK19 (+), CD56 (+), thyroid transcription factor-1 (a few +), CK7 (−), glypican-3 (−)En bloc cholecystect-omy, resection of hepatic segment IVb and V, Whipple and regional lymphadenec-tomy were performedThe skin became flushed in 3rd month after surgery and the patient passed away in 7th month