Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Gastroenterol. May 28, 2020; 26(20): 2479-2497
Published online May 28, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i20.2479
Table 1 Suggested intakes and timing of carbohydrate and protein for paralympics[64,131,132]
NutrientsFood sourcesQuantityTiming
CarbohydratePasta, rice, cereals, breads, legumes, potatoes, fruit, sugarLight: Low intensity or skill-based activities: 3-5 g/(kg·d); Moderate: Exercise program (1 h/d): 5-7 g/(kg·d); High: Endurance program (1-3 h/d moderate to high-intensity exercise): 6-10 g/(kg·d); Very high: Extreme commitment (> 4-5 h/d moderate to high-intensity exercise): 8-12 g/(kg·d)Before or during the exercise session, during recovery from a previous session; extended (> 60 min) bouts of high intensity (> 70% VO2max): CHO at a rate of about 30-60 g of CHO/h in a 6%-8% CHO electrolyte solution (6-12 fluid ounces) every 10-15 min throughout the entire exercise bout
ProteinsBeef, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products (high biological value sources), legumesFrom 1.2 g/(kg·d) to 1.7 g/(kg·d)After exercise, co-ingestion of CHO with a high-protein recovery snack is recommended to help restore muscle glycogen effectively; Post-exercise ingestion (immediately to 2-h post) of high-quality protein sources stimulates robust increases in muscle protein synthesis; Protein-rich foods/fluids (such as milk or cheese) before bed promotes muscle protein synthesis overnight