Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Gastroenterol. May 21, 2019; 25(19): 2294-2307
Published online May 21, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i19.2294
Table 1 Patient demographics and key clinical characteristics
CaseRef.YearCountryAgeSexClinical FeaturesTestsManagementOther
1McMahon et al[23]2018Australia20MIntermittent abdominal pain, distensionCTSurgical resection of sacSymptom free recovery
2Wolski et al[41]2017Poland12MAbdominal pain for 1 wkXR, USSurgical resection of sacPost-operative complication of adhesion SBO
3Griffith et al[13]2017United Kingdom12MAbdominal pain and vomiting for 1 wkXR, USSurgical resection of sacGangrenous acalculous cholecystitis
4Arumugam et al[6]2017India22FSmall bowel obstruction, assymetric distensionCTSurgical resection of sac
5Zoulamoglou et al[42]2016Greece28FIntermittent abdominal pain for 1 yr, asymmetric distensionXR, CTSurgical resection of sac
6Teixeira et al[36]2015Portugal25MSmall bowel obstruction. Fixed, assymetrical distensionXR, CTSurgical resection of sac
7Stewart et al[35]2014Australia16MIntermittent, chronic abdominal painXR, USSurgical resection of sac
8Wani et al[40]2013India28MGeneralised, intermittent abdominal painXR, CT, labsSurgical resection of sac
9Naidoo et al[26]2013India40MStab woundXR, fluoro, CTSurgical resection of sacStabbing injury
10Mitrousias et al[24]2012Greece78F3 d of abdominal painXR, CT, labsSurgical resection of sacHelical pattern on CT
11Shamsuddin et al[30]2012Pakistan16FSmall bowel obstructionXRFailed conservative. Surgical resection.Excellent recovery
12Ince et al[15]2012Turkey71MSmall bowel obstructionXR, US, CTIleocaecal resection
13Al-Taan et al[5]2010United Kingdom82MAsymptomaticSurgical resection of tumour and sacBowel cancer
14Kumara et al[17]2009Sri Lanka44FCushing’s syndrome secondary to right adrenal tumourCTSurgical resection of tumour and sacAdrenal tumour
15Sherigar et al[31]2007United Kingdom85FSmall bowel obstructionXR, CTSurgical resection of sacPatient died from chest sepsis
16Basu et al[9]2006India21FDistension, peritonismXR, US, labsResection of sac, appendix, lavage7 yr follow up
17Chew et al[11]2006Singapore38MSmall bowel obstructionXR, CTSurgical resection of sac
18Shioya et al[32]2005Japan34MSmall bowel obstruction, right inguinal herniaXR, labsSurgical resection of sacExcellent recovery
19Okobia et al[2]2001Nigeria15FAbdominal pain
20Mordehai et al[25]2001Israel14FAbdominal pain, vomiting, weight lossXR, USSurgical resection of sacPost-operative ileus
21Naraynsingh et al[27]2001West Indies64MAbdominal pain, fixed asymmetrical distension, differential palpationSurgical resection of sac
22Lee et al[19]2000South Korea22FAbdominal pain, distensionXR, CT, labsFailed conservative management. Surgical resection of sacExcellent recovery
23Kyaw et al[18]1998Singapore11MAbdominal pain for 5 d, soft mass left flankUS, CTSurgical resection of sacHydronephrosis
24Casas et al[10]1998Spain43MIntermittent abdominal pain for 6 moXR, fluoro, US, CTSurgical resection of sacHydronephrosis. Asymptomatic at 14 mo
25Constantinides et al[12]1998Italy49FFound at autopsy. Intermittent, severe abdominal pain during life.
26Adedeji et al[4]1994United Kingdom40MAbdominal pain, peritonism for 1 dXR, labsSurgical resection of sac
27Tsunoda et al[38]1993Japan52MSmall bowel obstruction, central abdominal massXR, US, CTSurgical resection of sacAsymptomatic at 8 mo
28Silva et al[34]1992Japan29MIntermittent abdominal pain, scaphoid abdomenXR, fluoro, CT, labsSurgical resection of sacPatient died due to gangrenous small bowel
29Awasthi et al[8]1991India16FAbdominal pain for 9 mo, distensionXR, fluoroSurgical resection of sacDischarged day 6 with resolution of symptoms.
30Arora et al[3]1989IndiaFAbdominal painColorectal cancer
31Askew et al[7]1988United KingdomMIncidental finding during surgery
32Walsh et al[39]1988Ireland82MSmall bowel obstructionXR
33Huddy et al[14]1988United Kingdom56MIntermittent abdominal painXRSurgical resection of sac
34Lifschitz et al[22]1987Ciskei66MAbdominal pain, vomiting, distension for 3 wkXR, labsSurgical resection of sac
35Jamieson et al[16]1985United KingdomIncidental finding during laparotomySurgical resection of sacColorectal cancer
36Sieck et al[33]1983Saudi Arabia14FNausea, vomiting, distension for 3 moXR, fluoro, labsSurgical resection of sacPatient had breast cancer
37Sieck et al[33]1983Saudi Arabia65FIntermittent pelvic pain, fever, abdominal distension for 5 yrSurgical resection of sac
38Sayfan et al[29]1979Israel12FAbdominal pain, vomiting for 1 dXR, labsSurgical resection of sacExcellent recovery. Discharged day 7
39Lewin et al[20]1970United States66MPost-mortem examination. Patient died of acute myocardial infarct.
40Thorlaksen et al[37]1953Canada57MDiarrhoea, abdominal pain for several yearsXR, labsInitial conservative management successful.
41Thorlaksen et al[37]1953Canada53MIncidental finding in asymptomatic patientXR, labsSurgical resection of sacCar accident, intra-abdominal haemmorhage
42Thorlaksen et al[37]1953Canada64MEpigastric pain, constipation for 2 yrXR, labsSurgical resection of sac
43Papez et al[28]1932United States61MCadaveric dissection
44Lickley et al[21]1907United Kingdom52MAutopsy. Asymptomatic during life
45Cleland et al[1]1868IrelandCadaveric dissection
Table 2 Geographical distribution of cases
CountryCase number
United Kingdom8
Saudi Arabia2
United States2
South Korea1
Sri Lanka1
West Indies1
Table 3 Key differences between congenital peritoneal encapsulation and fibrotic peritoneal encapsulation
Congenital peritoneal encapsulationFibrotic peritoneal encapsulation
TriggerPrimary/Idiopathic (abdominal cocoon) or secondary (encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis)
Incidence45 casesIdiopathic: 184 cases Secondary: Based on cause
Age (yr, range)40.8 (11-85)34.7 (7-87)
Sex (M:F)5:32:1
Geographical GeographyEurope, Sub-continental AsiaEquatorial regions
MorphologyIdentical to peritoneum. Thin, semi-transparent, vascularised, soft.Similar to scar tissue. Thick, white, firm, fibrotic.
HistopathologyIdentical to peritoneum. Mesothelial lining, fibro-connective tissue.Dense fibro-connective tissue proliferation, chronic inflammatory cell infiltration and dilated lymphatics
TreatmentPeritonectomy, adhesiolysisCorticosteroids, tamoxifen, peritonectomy
PrognosisExcellent. Near complete resolution of symptoms.Up to 50% mortality at 1 yr following diagnosis.